Something to Brag About: Jeremiah 9:22–23 (Part 3: Articles, Particles, and Verbals, Oh My!) – Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields

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This month’s post concludes a post begun June 2017; please see that post for an explanation of versification. As mentioned there, this post will follow Hebrew numbering with Hebrew texts and English numbering with English texts.

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Articles “A” and “The” in v. 23b–d

Hebrew and English differ in that English has both definite and indefinite articles: the and a(n), respectively. Hebrew has no indefinite article, and so it is more precise simply to say it only has the article. English translators must make choices with more options than Hebrew. The Hebrew article overlaps with English the.

The Hebrew article makes expressions definite, just as…

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Something to Brag About: Jeremiah 9:22-23 (Part 2: Adjectives, Gender, and Number) – Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields

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This month’s post continues from last month. Please see the June 2017 post for an explanation of versification. As mentioned there, this post will follow Hebrew numbering with Hebrew texts and English numbering with English texts.

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Adjectives

The Hebrew of 22b–d contains three adjectives, “wise … strong … rich” and three corresponding nouns, “wisdom … strength … riches.” The adjectives are functioning as nouns and refer to people identified by each quality. The nouns are impersonal and are things possessed by the people.

The careful reader of English versions notices some differences between the NIV and NASB in v. 23b–d: the NIV has “the wise … the strong … the rich” while the NASB reads “a wise man … the mighty man … a rich man.” The reader who is…

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Something to Brag About: Jeremiah 9:22–23 (Part 1: Conjunctions) – Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields

Lee Fields on 2 months ago. Tagged under ,,,.

isaiah-scroll.l

My daughter shared with me a verse she decided to memorize as she was reading through Jeremiah. It is a great verse for God’s people to know and there are several interesting and instructional features as well.

Hebrew vs. English Versification

The first thing this verse illustrates is that versification sometimes differs between the Hebrew and the English. In this section of Jeremiah, the Hebrew numbering includes the English 9:1 as 8:23, throwing off the numbering one verse. They reunite at 10:1. This post will follow Hebrew numbering with Hebrew texts and English numbering with English texts.

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Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields – Gen 1:2: A Disjunctive/Offline Clause

Lee Fields on 5 months ago. Tagged under ,,.

In last month’s blog, we looked at different ways Gen 1:1 can be understood with respect to the following verses. In this blog, we want to look at v. 2 and analyze how vv. 1–3 relate.

Of Conjunctions and Clauses

The key to identifying clauses is noting how they are joined together. There are three categories of clause connections: (1) those connected by Waw, (2) those connected by another conjunction or subordinating word, and (3) those without any conjunction whatsoever. For the conjunctions, you may like to read Hebrew for the Rest of Us, 81–85, and especially on Waw, pp. 81–82.

Waw is the king of conjunctions. It is always prefixed to a word; it…

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Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields – Is Gen 1:1 a Subordinate Idea or a Main Clause?

Lee Fields on 6 months ago. Tagged under ,,.

Dead Sea Scroll - Isaiah ScrollThe creation stories in Genesis are fodder for the arguments of Bible believers and skeptics alike. Even Gen 1:1, one of the Bible’s most familiar verses, is not free from dispute on linguistic grounds. The traditional translation is “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”

But alternatives have been offered. Here is a sampling:

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Relevance

At issue structurally is how v. 1 relates to vv. 2 and 3. In the traditional translation, Gen 1:1

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Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields – Hebrew Poetry and Isaiah

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isaiahAccording to Duvall and Hayes in Grasping God’s Word , more than one-third of the Old Testament is written in the form of poetry. (373) Modern English versions usually mark off poetry by punctuation, namely, by arranging into poetic lines rather than a continuous running text. This helps us identify poetic sections, but there is still more to understanding Hebrew poetry.

Hebrew and English poetry often use the same devises, e.g., rhyming, figures of speech, forms of parallelism, rare words or forms. But the may use them to different degrees or ways. Of course, it is oftentimes impossible to translate poetic features. Knowing some Hebrew can help us appreciate what authors are doing.

In this post, let’s look at two features, sounds and…

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Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields – Understanding English Ps 37: Part 2

Lee Fields on 10 months ago. Tagged under ,,.

Westminster_Psalter_DavidThis post concludes a post begun last month on the verbs from the root חרה. Of interest is Ps 37 where it is translated three times with fret. Since the English word is not used much, it forms an interesting object of study.

Most major versions use the word fret in Ps 37 (NIV, NASB, ESV, NRSV, KJV). Fret means “devour, eat, rub, chafe,” and then metaphorically “to cause to suffer emotional strain,” or “to become vexed or worried” (Miriam-Webster’s…

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Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields – Understanding English Ps 37: Part 1

Lee Fields on 11 months ago. Tagged under ,,.

Westminster_Psalter_David

Fret is not a word people use very often, but in Ps 37 it appears three times: vv. 1, 7, 8. Most major versions use the word fret in Ps 37 (NIV, NASB, ESV, NRSV, KJV). Miriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition, lists six different entries for fret. The one we are interested in is defined as “devour, eat, rub, chafe,” and then metaphorically “to cause to suffer emotional strain,” or “to become vexed or worried.”

These notions of the meaning of fret all fit the context of Ps 37:1 and 7, but v. 8 seems a little less appropriate. Verse 8 reads (NIV):

8 Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil.

There are two difficulties with fret meaning “worried.” (1) The two nouns in the…

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Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields – Can a Person Change or Not? Jer 13:23

Lee Fields on 1 year ago. Tagged under ,,.

A friend of mine read Jer 13:23 in the NIV and in the Amplified Bible and wondered about the apparent contradiction. This gives an opportunity to dig into a conjunction. The chart below gives the Hebrew, letters for each line in the verse, and three versions for comparison.

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The NIV says that the people cannot change, while the Amplified and ESV seem to say that change is possible.

jeremiahThe Question in the First Half

The first half of the verse (Read more

Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields – The Timing of the Lord’s Return to Jerusalem in Zech 1:16

Lee Fields on 1 year ago. Tagged under ,,.

Tissot_Zechariah (1)The Setting

Zechariah and Haggai were prophesying when the Jews had returned from Babylonian exile and were supposed to be rebuilding the temple. However, they had encountered opposition and had become so discouraged that work had stopped. The Lord sends these prophets to encourage the people to resume and complete the work. This opening vision begins a series that continues through ch. 6. It serves in part  to affirm to the Jews that the Lord is with them in spite of the difficulties they are encountering.

Time in the Translations

English translations show an interesting different translation of Zechariah 1:16. Please note the chart…

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Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields – Swirling Tenses in Ps 2:1–3

Lee Fields on 1 year ago. Tagged under ,,.

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The Forms and Translation

The NIV, as do all the most common versions, render all the verbs of Ps 2:1–3 with the English simple present. This English tense refers to action that is portrayed generally or is repeatedly true. It does not usually portray action as currently in progress, for which English uses the progressive present tense: “are conspiring,” etc.

The Hebrew, however, shows variation. The four verbs and their tense-aspects are:

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If this were a narrative text instead of poetry, one translation reflecting the tense-aspects would be

1a        Why did the nations rage, 1b        and…

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Hebrew and You with Lee M. Fields — The Tree of the Knowing Good and Evil (Gen 2:9)

Lee Fields on 1 year ago. Tagged under ,,,,.

 

Screen Shot 2016-03-15 at 5.28.38 PMThis well-known verse describes the situation in the Garden of Eden before the fall. There is great theological import in all of these chapters on creation, but what concerns us here is an interesting point of grammar, the last clause, וְעֵץ הַדַּעַת טֹוב וָרָע (weʿēṣ haddaʿaṯ ṭôḇ wārāʿ)

What is the Problem?

The usual analysis of the grammar is that הַדַּעַת is a noun with the article in the construct with the next noun meaning “the knowledge of.” The difficulty with this is that if the article is used to mark the determination (or “definiteness”) in a construct chain, only the last word may have the article. For example, וְעֵץ הַחַיִּים (weʿēṣ haḥayyîm), “and the tree…

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